The first Ministry for enlightenment and education in Azerbaijan - the Ministry of Public Enlightenment was established by the Order of the Government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic of 28 May 1918. Its structure consisting of three departments (general secondary education, higher and secondary special education, and vocational schools) was approved by the Order of the Council of Ministers of 30 June 1918.
The Ministry of Public Enlightenment was renamed and reorganized as the Commissariat of Public Enlightenment by the Order of the Council of Ministers of Azerbaijan SSR of 28 April 1920, and all education institutions operating in the country were placed under its control.
In 1940, the Department for Labor Reserves was established by the Order of the Council of Ministers of Azerbaijan SSR and vocational education institutions were put under the control of the Department. In 1959 there was founded the State Vocational Education Committee, which operated until 1988. Moreover, in 1959, by the Order of the Council of Ministers was established the Committee of Higher and Secondary Special Education, and all institutions operating in the Republic were put under its control. In 1964, the Committee was reorganized as the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education. Overall, two ministries (Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education) and one committee on education (State Vocational Education Committee) operated in Azerbaijan during the period 1959 -1988.
In 1988, by the Order of the Council of Ministers of Azerbaijan SSR all three departments were abolished and the Ministry of Public Education was established on their base. The Ministry of Public Education was renamed as the Ministry of Education by the Order of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan of 3 September 1993. The Regulations of the Ministry were approved by the Presidential Decree dated 1 March 2005.
Mikayil Jabbarov has been appointed as the Education Minister of the Republic of Azerbaijan by the Order of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan of 19 April 2013.